Thursday, December 6, 2012

Bible Study on the Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe (Disney, 2005)


The Chronicles of Narnia:

The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe


 

Walt Disney Pictures, 2005

Directed by Andrew Adamson and Co-produced by Douglas Gresham

 

Authorship: The Chronicles of Narnia were written by C.S. Lewis, a Christian English professor at Oxford College in England.  The first volume was published in 1950, and was a story meant to remind us of the greatest story of all, the Bible.

 

Setting: 194_, England, World War 2

 

Discussion Points:


*Chapter 1 –

How Peter and Edmund are dealing with absence of father.  Mr. Pevensie has gone away to fight in World War 2.  Mrs. Pevensie and her four children, Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy, are startled awake and sent running toward their bomb shelter.  Peter and Edmund are both trying to cope with their father's absence in different ways.  Peter, being the oldest, tries to assume the role of the leader of the household.  Not being quite equipped for this role, he overdoes it and comes off as being too hard on his younger siblings, particularly Edmund.    Edmund, of course, begins to resent this, not seeing that his own method of coping with their situation, namely misbehaving, is only adding to the problem.  The tension between Peter and Edmund will continue to be a major plot point throughout the film.

 

*Chapter 2 –

Adults and children.  The bombing forces many families, including the Pevensies, to send their children into the country and away from the big cities, which may prove to be a target once again for a German air assault.  Professor Digory Kirk is the man who volunteers to house the Pevensie children.  Mrs. Macready, a stern and ill-tempered woman, is his maid.  Though she is less than nice to the children, they do give her respect.  She orders them to be quiet and to not disturb the Professor.  This may be communicating to us the ideal relationship between adults and children.  Children are to be quiet and stay out of the way.  They are not to speak to an adult unless an adult asks them a question.  However, because Mrs. Macready is an unlikable character, this may also be hinting that adults are, in fact, not to be overly serious or cold toward children.   This line of thought is supported by Jewish and Christian Scriptures.  One of the Ten Commandments given through Moses is that children must obey their parents (Exodus 20:12), but the Apostle Paul wrote to one of his churches that parents must not be too hard on their children (Ephesians 6:4).

 

*Chapter 3 –

In a game of hide-and-seek, Lucy, the youngest Pevensie child, finds a wardrobe in the Professor's spare room.  Thinking that it will be a good hiding place, she steps into it.  Soon she realizes that the wardrobe does not have a back.  In fact, it opens onto a wintry forest.  She is cautious, looking back from time to time to make sure that she can still see the wardrobe, but not fearful, as she begins to explore the forest.  She soon meets a talking faun in the forest.  At first, both of them are startled.  They both scream and hide.  But it is Lucy who comes out from her hiding place first and approaches the frightened faun.  Again, she is not afraid, but merely curious, as she begins to talk to and befriend this new being, Mr. Tumnus.  Perhaps this is communicating to us the need to have childlike faith, trust, and innocence and to be brave in the midst of uncertain circumstances.  Jesus said, "I tell you the truth, anyone who will not receive the kingdom of God like a little child will never enter it" (Luke 18:17).  And God, Jesus, angels and God's spokespersons are always encouraging people not to be afraid.[1]  Indeed, the virtue of bravery will continue to be pressed upon throughout the movie.  Lucy continues to exhibit it, while Peter must discover it.

            During their initial conversation, Tumnus asks Lucy if she is a “daughter of Eve”.  This is an expression that the Narnians use for humans.  Later, the White Witch will call Edmund a "son of Adam".  This reminds us of the Biblical story of creation.  According Genesis, when God created the earth, He made one man, who was called Adam (Genesis 2:7).[2]  He then created a woman, Eve, to be with him and to be his wife (Genesis 2:18, 21-22; 3:20).        

Genesis 2:7 – “The Lord God formed the man [Adam] from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being.”

Genesis 2:18 – “The Lord God said, ‘It is not good for the man to be alone.  I will make a helper suitable for him.’”

Genesis 2:21-22 – “So the Lord God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep; and while he was sleeping, He took one of the man’s ribs and closed up the place with flesh.  Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib He had taken out of the man, and He brought her to the man.”

Genesis 3:20 – “Adam named his wife Eve, because she would become the mother of all the living.”

God then made Adam a woman, named Eve, to be his wife.  From these two people, came all the humans that are alive today.  We’re all one big family, with our great-great…grandparents being Adam and Eve.

 

Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy are sent into the boring country to live with a boring old professor in a boring old house.  But, as we come to find out, things are not at all what they seem.  As soon as Lucy discovers the passage into Narnia, her life goes from being boring to being exciting, from ordinary to magical.  We can see this same kind of change in our own lives.  We see the world around us and assume that this is all that there is.  But, as Christians, we know that there is much more to life than just what we can see with our eyes and touch with our hands.  There is another side of life, the spiritual side, that we can enter, that can change our lives to make them more exciting, more adventerous, more fulfilling.  Just as the children entered into Narnia, so God invites us into this spiritual side of life:

 

John 7:24 –  Jesus says, “Stop judging by mere appearances and make a right judgment.”

Things are not always as they appear.

 

1 Corinthians 2:7-9 – “We speak of God’s secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began.  None of the rulers of this age understood it, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.  However, as it is written: ‘No eye has seen, no ear has heard, no mind has conceived what God has prepared for those who love Him’.”

 

This spiritual life has been hidden from us before, but now we can enter into it.  Some people do not understand it, but now we can, and if we are willing to enter into this spiritual life with God, God promises that it will be more incredible than anything that we could ever imagine.  Jesus says in John 10:10 – “I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full.”

 

As Peter and Edmund were dealing with the absence of their father, so Mr. Tumnus' father is a key trigger in his life.  As Lucy and Mr. Tumnus arrive at Mr. Tumnus' house for tea and sardines, Mr. Tumnus says that his father also went away to a war.  We presume that this is the war in which the White Witch conquered Narnia and that Mr. Tumnus' father was on the losing, but good side.  Mr. Tumnus remarks sadly that he is not very much like his father.  This is because, as the movie soon reveals, Mr. Tumnus is planning to kidnap Lucy in order to hand her over to the White Witch.  Mr. Tumnus knows that his father would not be pleased with him for serving the White Witch and we can tell that this is a major source of tension to the conscience of Mr. Tumnus.  When his deed is almost complete, he hesitates.  He doesn't want to betray Lucy, but he lacks the moral courage to refuse the Witch.  He admits this to Lucy and is encouraged by her to do the right thing.  Mr. Tumnus has a change of heart.  He is sorry for the wrong that he was about to do and actively turns away from it.  This is a perfect example of repentance.  The Bible says that we’re all like Mr. Tumnus before we come to know Jesus.  We do things that we don't necessarily want to do and serve our sinful natures.  The only escape from this is to believe in Jesus Christ (Romans 7:14-25).  It is only then that we can begin to turn from our sin and begin to live rightly (Romans 8:1-17).  Just as Mr. Tumnus wept over his wrong deeds, so the Apostle Paul tells us that, "Godly sorrow leads to repentance which leads to salvation" (1 Corinthians 7:10).

 

1 Corinthians 7:10 – “Godly sorrow leads to repentance which leads to salvation”

 

*Chapter 5 –

The first thing that Lucy does when she gets back from her visit to Narnia is to try to tell the other children what she has experienced.  Of course, the other three children, not having experienced what she has, do not believe her.  Edmund even makes fun of her.  Lucy gets frustrated that they do not believe her, but she knows what she has seen and she sticks to the truth of her experience.  This mirrors our experience as Christians.  Once we have experienced the Presence of God in our lives, the first thing that we want to do is invite others to share in that experience with us, but many people do not believe it when we tell them about it.  Sometimes Christians have been and are ridiculed for their beliefs and even persecuted.  The only thing that we can do is to hold firmly to the truth that we have experienced, just as Lucy did, and to pray for and keep talking to those people who don’t believe us (Matthew 5:10-12, 43-44). 

 

Matthew 5:10-12 - 10Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 11"Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. 12Rejoice and be glad, because great is your reward in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

 

Matthew 5:44 - 44But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you

 

*Chapter 6 –

Later that night, not being able to sleep, Lucy returns to the wardrobe.  Edmund notices her walking down the hall and, planning to scare her, follows her.  He soon finds himself in Narnia and after wandering for a moment, comes face to face with the White Witch.  She acts nicely toward him, offering him hot cocoa and Turkish Delight, even a place on the throne of Narnia, but the Witch also demands that Edmund do something for her.  It is obvious that the Witch does not really care for Edmund, but is simply using him.  Later Lucy informs him that she calls herself a Queen, but she's really a Witch.  C.S. Lewis intentionally crafted the White Witch to remind us of the Biblical Satan.  According to Paul, Satan pretends to be an angel in order to deceive us (2 Corinthians 11:14), just as the Witch pretended to be a kind Queen.  And the temptations given to Edmund, the food and the crown of Narnia, reminds us of two of the temptations that Satan presented to Jesus.  Jesus had been fasting and Satan tempted Him with bread.  He then offered to give Him all the kingdoms of the world.  There was a catch though.  Just as the White Witch demanded that Edmund serve her purposes, so Satan required that Jesus worship him (Matthew 4:1-11).

 

2 Corinthians 11:14 – “And no wonder, for Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light.”

 

Just as the Witch acted nicely toward Edmund, so Satan can pretend to be an angel.  The devil acts friendly toward us, tells us what we want to hear, but that doesn’t mean that we can believe him.

 

John 8:44 – The devil has no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks his native language, for he is a liar and the father of lies.

 

He only acts friendly toward us and lies to us so that we’ll do what he wants us to do.

Just as the White Witch offered Edmund to be king of Narnia, so the devil tempted Jesus.  Luke 4:5-8 - 5The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world. 6And he said to him, "I will give you all their authority and splendor, for it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to. 7So if you worship me, it will all be yours."  8Jesus answered, "It is written: 'Worship the Lord your God and serve him only.'"

Satan can offer us Turkish Delight or kingdoms, power or money, but it’s not worth it.  It won’t last.  The only thing that matters is worshipping God.

Mark 8:36 - 36What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul?

 

Thirdly, the Witch is White.  I suspect that C.S. Lewis made her to be white and made her power to be freeze things and keep the land in perpetual winter for a very poignant reason.  The Witch is White because people turn pale when they are ill or dead.  The White Witch is this story represents persons who are spiritually dead.  Freezing and winter also represent death, physical and spiritual, just as the coming of spring to Narnia represents the hope of new life – spiritually in Christ and physically at the resurrection from the dead.[3]  Why do you think it was always winter in Narnia when the White Witch was in control?  Now, the Witch's power is decreasing and the land is becoming fruitful again.

Romans 8:19-22 - 19The creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 20For the creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope 21that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God.  22We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time.

The Bible says that the whole creation is frustrated, is in bodage to decay, is groaning in the pains of childbirth.  Genesis 3:17-18 tells us why that is - 17 To Adam God said, "Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, 'You must not eat of it,' "Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. 18 It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field.

The ground never used to be cursed.  It never produced thorns and thistles before.  But what happened?  Adam and Eve sinned.  And because Adam and Eve brought sin into the world, the whole world suffers for it.

Did you know that animals never used to eat each other until Adam and Eve sinned?  The Bible says that the animal kingdom will have peace again in Heaven.  Isaiah 11:6-9 -       6 The wolf will live with the lamb, the leopard will lie down with the goat, the calf and the lion and the yearling together; and a little child will lead them. 7 The cow will feed with the bear, their young will lie down together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox.     8 The infant will play near the hole of the cobra, and the young child put his hand into the viper's nest. 9 They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain, for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD as the waters cover the sea.

 

*Chapter 7 –

Again, Peter and Susan, with no help from Edmund, do not believe that Lucy has been to Narnia.  Professor Kirk and Mrs. Macready are awakened by the commotion.  As Peter and Susan explain the situation to the Professor, he infers that Lucy should be believed based on her character.  If Lucy is known to be a truthful person, they should not assume that she lying now.  This reminds of Jesus' teaching concerning the parable of the fruit and the trees.  Jesus said, "Every good tree bears good fruit, but a bad tree bears bad fruit.  A good tree cannot bear bad fruit, and a bad tree cannot bear good fruit."  In the same way, a good person, in this case Lucy, will not do bad things, such as lie (Matthew 7:16-20). 

 

*Chapter 9 –

Later, as the Pevensie children are trying to hide from Mrs. Macready because of a window they had broken, they seek refuge in the wardrobe.  In doing so, all four children now find themselves in Narnia.  With Lucy leading, they travel to Mr. Tumnus' home only to find that he has been taken prisoner by the White Witch.  Mr. Beaver then meets them and takes them to his home.  There, Mr. and Mrs. Beaver tell the children that it has been prophesied that two human males and two human females will become kings and queens of Narnia and the Witch will be defeated.  This calls to mind that, in the Bible, God has given us prophecies as well.  Some of the prophecies in the Bible have already been fulfilled, like the first coming of Jesus, but some have not yet happened, such as Jesus' second coming.  One has to wonder why such prophecies are given.  Amos says that God "does nothing without revealing His plan to His servants the prophets" (Amos 3:7) and Jesus said "I have told you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe" (John 14:29).  God tells us what is going to happen in the future in the form of prophecies so that when those things do happen, our faith in God will be strengthened.  Prophecies give us hope by providing us with things to look forward to.  They also give us warnings.  Prophecies inform us that God is ultimately sovereign over everything that happens in our world and that He does have a plan.  This world and we who live in it are not governed by chance.  There is a purpose to our existence.  We are moving toward something.

Amos 3:7-8 - 7 Surely the Sovereign LORD does nothing without revealing his plan        to his servants the prophets. 8 The lion has roared— who will not fear? The Sovereign LORD has spoken— who can but prophesy?

John 14:29 - 29I have told you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe.

 

As the Beavers are explaining the situation, Edmund sneaks off, heading toward the palace of the White Witch.  Even after Edmund has heard that she who calls herself the Queen of Narnia is really an evil witch and that she's arrested Lucy's friend, Tumnus,  and that the real King of Narnia, Aslan, has returned, he still wants to go to her.  We must, at this point, ask why he would do this.  While there may be many factors motivating Edmund, including his strained relationship with Peter, the main reason seems to be selfishness.  The Scriptures teach us that selfishness is a vice.[4]  Rather, we are to be selfless, putting God and others above ourselves.[5]

*Chapter 11 –

The fox lies to protect the Pevensies.  Lying is wrong, isn't it?  God lied, deceiving spirit.

 

*Chapter 14 –

The Pevensies, realizing that Edmund has gone, realizing that he has betrayed them, still want him back.  The only reason Peter and Susan agree to meet Aslan is to enlist his help in rescuing Edmund.  They even admit to Aslan when they meet him that they were partially responsible for Edmund's actions.  Earlier, Professor Kirk encouraged the children to act like a family.  It seems that C.S. Lewis and the writers of this film are communicating to us that this is what "acting like a family" is.  It is showing unconditional love toward the members of your family, extending grace and forgiveness when they have wronged you, and doing whatever you can to help them. 

 

Aslan says that there is a deep magic more powerful than anyone that rules over all of life.  It determines right from wrong and governs all of our destinies.  This is where the prophecy comes from.  What do you think that is?  God's sovereignty and plan.

 

Chapter 16 –

When the Witch comes to visit Aslan's camp, she begins to discuss the laws of the "deep magic", what we now know to be a euphemism for God's will.  She says that according to the deep magic, the blood of every traitor, referring to Edmund for betraying his brother and sisters, belongs to her and that Edmund must be put to death on the Stone Table for his crime.  Theologically, this begins the richest portion of the story and film.  As we have discussed earlier, the White Witch represents Satan and our parallel here is that not only do traitors belong to the devil, but all who sin in any way, which is every one of us.  Just as the deep magic dictated that Edmund deserved death for his wrongs, so we deserve death for our sins, according to God's justice. 

 When God created Adam and Eve, He gave them one simple command.  He told them not to eat from a certain tree.  If they did eat from that tree, God said that they would die (Genesis 2:15-17).  Eventually they did eat from it, though, and were made mortal in that their access to the tree of life was removed (Genesis 3).  Now, because we are all descendants of Adam and Eve and have inherited their sinful nature (Romans 5:12-21; 1 Corinthians 15:45-49), we too must suffer death for the sins that we all commit arising from our sinful nature (Romans 6:23; Ephesians 2:1-10).  And not only is this death physical.  It is also spiritual, as those who sin "die" in Hell (Revelation 20:11-15).  Only by having faith in Jesus and by God's grace can we be rescued from this second death.

As the Witch begins to quote the deep magic to him, Aslan interrupts, saying that he was there when the deep magic was written.  As we now know that the deep magic stands for God's will, we may now begin to discuss the metaphorical identity of Aslan.  We have discussed the intended meaning of the Witch, but have not yet touched upon who or what "the real King of Narnia" represents.  To begin to unravel this mystery, we ask who was there when God established His will for the world.  The beginning of the Gospel of John makes it clear that it was Jesus who was with God in the beginning.  Here is our first clue as to Aslan's identity.  Let us continue to the next. 

As the Witch began citing the deep magic and demanding Edmund's blood, Edmund became visibly afraid.  He kept looking toward Aslan for help.  He instinctively knew that Aslan was the only one who could protect him.  In the same way, we must look to Jesus for He is the only who can save us.

Aslan then invited the White Witch to speak alone with Him.  At this point in the movie we do not know what they were discussing.  All we know is that Aslan somehow convinces the White Witch to renounce her claim on Edmund's life.  As the others are rejoicing, however, Aslan looks sad.  Later that night, Lucy and Susan notice Aslan walking away by himself.  He still seems sad about something and says that he would be glad for their company for a while.  As the movie continues, we realize that Aslan knew that he was going to his death.  In the same way, Jesus knowing that He was about to die, was sorrowful and took some of His disciples with Him to the Garden of Gethsemane (Matthew 26:36-46).

*Chapter 17 –

As Aslan approaches the Stone Table in order to be killed, he does not resist or try to argue.  He simply allows the villains to mock and mistreat him.  In the same way, neither did Jesus try to prevent His death.[6]

As the Witch is about to kill Aslan, she whispers something to him, revealing to us that she and Aslan had made a deal.  Out of love, Aslan had volunteered to be put to death instead of Edmund.  Just as Aslan died for Edmund, so Jesus died for all of us.  As has been explained above, we all deserve death because of our sins.  But God, in His mercy, allows us to make a trade.  In the Old Testament, when someone sinned, they had to bring an animal to the priest and have it put to death.  They had to make a sacrifice.  The animal died so that the person didn’t have to yet (Leviticus 4-6:7).  When Jesus died on the cross, He became our sacrifice.  Instead of us being put to death for our sins, Jesus allowed Himself to be put to death in our place (Isaiah 53:5; 1 John 2:2).  And why did He do this?  The Witch says that Aslan did it out of love.  So the Bible says that God and Jesus did it out love (John 3:16; Revelation 1:4-5). 

Isaiah 53:5 - 5 But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed.

 

1 John 2:2 - 2He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world.

 

 

Furthermore, as Aslan, "the real King of Narnia" died, so Jesus died, being the rightful King of the Jews through His legal descendancy from King David (Matthew 1; 27:11, 37).  And as Susan and Lucy watch Aslan die, so did some of Jesus' female disciples watched Him die (Matthew 27:55-56).

 

Aslan, however, does not stay dead for long.  As the girls turn away from the Stone Table, they hear the sound of the Stone Table cracking.  They turn to see what has happened and notice that Aslan's body is no longer there.  Bewildered, they wonder what the villains have done to him now.  But Aslan soon appears to them, alive and well, setting their worries to rest.  In the same way, Jesus died, but came back to life physically after three days.[7]   Just like Susan and Lucy, one of Jesus' female disciples, Mary Magdalene, thought at first that Jesus' enemies had done something further with His dead body (John 20:1-18).

Not understanding how he can possibly be alive, Aslan reads to the girls what the deep magic actually says.???????  This is also why Jesus was able to be our substitute in death, but rise again.  He was completely innocent of any sin.[8]  He could therefore take on other people's sin, as He had none to pay for for Himself.  But, because He had not sinned, and was therefore punished unjustly, the punishment, death, had to be lifted.

Let us now turn our attention to the Stone Table.  The Stone Table, for C.S. Lewis, was the representation of the Old Testament Law, beginning with the two stone tablets given to Moses on which were written the Ten Commandments (Deuteronomy 5:1-22).  The Law is what demands punishment, even so far as physical and spiritual death, for sin.  This is the Old Testament or Covenant.  When Jesus took our sin, however, He fulfilled the requirements of the Old Covenant for us and thus instituted a new Covenant (Luke 22:20; Romans 8:1-4).  Under the Old Covenant, one had to obey the Law, something that was impossible to do (Galatians 3:1-4:5; James 2:10).  Now, under the New Covenant, one must only receive the grace that God offers us through Jesus' sacrifice (Romans 7). 

Also, under the Old Covenant, because humans were sinful, they could not approach God, but had to rely on the priests to mediate between them and God.  Otherwise, the God might kill them if a sinful human tried to approach Him.  A curtain in the Temple separated God from the people (Exodus 26:33; Leviticus 16; Hebrews 9:7).  Now, through Jesus, all are made holy through the forgiveness of their sins and are given access to God's Presence.  This is seen in that when Jesus died, the curtain in the Temple that separated the Sanctuary from the Holy of Holies, was torn in two (Matthew 27:50-51; Hebrews 10:19-22).  So, then the Old Covenant, represented by the Law, including the prohibition to enter God's Presence, has been destroyed through Jesus' death, as was seen in The Chronicles of Narnia with the cracking of the Stone Table.

Now that we know that Aslan represents Jesus, let us discuss why C.S. Lewis chose to portray Jesus as a lion.  In the Bible, God and Jesus are referred to as being like a lion.[9]  A lion is strong, powerful, the "king of the whole wood", in the words of Mr. Beaver, just as God or Jesus is the king of the whole world (Psalm 47:2; Revelation 1:5). 

 

*Chapter 20 –

After Aslan's resurrection, he and the girls rush off to the Palace of the White Witch, where all of the persons whom she has frozen/turned to stone are being kept.  Aslan’s breathes on these people and they are brought back to life.  This reminds us of how God breathed into Adam, the first human being, to bring him to life (Revelation 2:7).

Genesis 2:7 - 7 the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. 

*Chapter 22 –

Before, during, and after this, a battle is raging between the loyal Narnians and the forces of the White Witch.  I believe that C.S. Lewis saw this battle as occurring on two different planes of existence.  On the one hand, he had lived through both World Wars and was writing The Chronicles shortly after the second.  He would have been very aware of the fact that war is sometimes necessary and right, as ugly and unfortunate as it is.  Though by no means the first option in resolving a conflict of interest, people are sometimes driven to war, such as when a dictator orders a holocaust or when an evil Witch tries to conquer your world.  On the other hand, as a Christian, Lewis would have known that we are fighting a spiritual every day.  Satan and our own sinful natures constantly attack with various temptations.  We must put on the armor of God and have the Scriptures in our hand as a sword in order to defeat them (Ephesians 6:10-18).  We must, remember, however, that just as Peter could not defeat the Witch by himself, but had to wait for Aslan, so must we wait for God to defeat our spiritual enemy once and for all (Revelation 20:7-10). 

Ephesians 6:10-18 - 10Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power. 11Put on the full armor of God so that you can take your stand against the devil's schemes. 12For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms. 13Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand. 14Stand firm then, with the belt of truth buckled around your waist, with the breastplate of righteousness in place, 15and with your feet fitted with the readiness that comes from the gospel of peace. 16In addition to all this, take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. 17Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. 18And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests. With this in mind, be alert and always keep on praying for all the saints.

*Chapter 23 –

After the coronation of the four Pevensies, as Lucy and Mr. Tumnus see Aslan walking away, Mr. Tumnus remarks that Aslan is not a tame lion.  Lucy replies by saying that He is good, though.  This line from the book has often reminded me that neither can we tame God.  God is in control of us, not us in control of God.  But that's okay because God, the one who is in control, is good, even if I can't see exactly how in all circumstances. 

 



[1] Gns 15:1; 21:17; 26:24; 46:3; Exd 14:13; 20:20; Nmb 14:9; 21:34; Dtr 1:17, 21, 29; 3:2, 22; 7:18; 18:22; 20:1; 31:6, 8; Jsh 8:1; 10:8, 25; 11:6; Jdg 6:23; 1 Sml 12:20; 2 Kng 1:15; 19:6; 25:24; 1 Chr 22:13; 28:20; 2 Chr 20:15, 17; 32:7; Is 8:12; 10:24; 35:4; 37:6; 40:9; 41:10, 13-14; 43:5; 44:2; 44:8; 51:7; 54:4; Jrm 1:8; 10:5; 30:10; 40:9; 42:11; 46:27-28; Ezk 2:6; 3:9; Daniel 10:12, 19; Zph 3:16; Hgg 2:5; Zch 8:13, 15; Mtt 1:20; 10:26, 28; 28:5, 10; Luke 1:13, 20; 2:10; 12:4, 32; Jhn 12:15; 14:27; Acts 18:9; 27:24; 1 Ptr 3:14; Rvl 1:17; 2:10 
[2] "Adam" being one of the words for "man" in Hebrew, which is the original language of the Jewish Scriptures
[3] Ezekiel 37:1-14; Romans 6:1-14; 1 Corinthians 15; 2 Corinthians 5:14-17; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18
[4] Prv 18:1; Mtt 23:25; Rmn 2:8; Glt 5:20; Phlp 1:17; Jms 3:14, 16; 5:5
[5] Psl 119:36; Mtt 22:34-40; Rmn 12:10; 1 Crn 13:5; Phlp 2:3
[6] Is 53:7; Mtt 26:63; 27:12-14, 26-31
[7] Mtt 26:17; 27:62-28:10; 1 Crn 15:3-8
[8] 2 Crn 5:21; Hbr 4:15; 1 Ptr 2:22; 1 Jhn 3:5
[9] Hos 5:14-15; Amos 3:8; Rvl 5:5

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